Category: Educational

Developmental Stages In Our Life

According to psychologist Erik Erikson (1960’s), there are 8 psychological stages that we all go through in our life. Understanding these stages helps you understand what you and the people around you are going through.

According to the theory, when you complete each stage successfully, you develop a healthy personality and develop psychological strength.

But if you don’t pass through a stage successfully, you may develop an unhealthy sense of self and trouble with the stages that follow. However, you can work on resolving that stage successfully later in your life, through counseling for example.

According to psychologist Erik Erikson, the following are the 8 developmental stages.

Trust vs Mistrust

This stage is from Birth to about 1 1/2-years-old. This is where we learn if our world is trustworthy or not. If a baby cries because he’s hungry and his mom feeds him, he learns that his needs can be met. If he cries and his needs are not met, he learns that this world is not trustworthy. Infants that are severely neglected actually stop crying after a while because he learns that his needs are not going to be met.

Successful completion of this stage teaches us hope that our needs will be met. If this stage is not completed successfully, the child learns that the world is unpredictable and has a sense of mistrust. This could turn into anxiety later on.

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt

1 1/2-3-years-old. At this stage the child is learning that they can be more independent. If you’ve ever been around a 2-year-old, you that that their favorite words are “mine” and “me do it”.

If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in being more independent, they become more confident and secure.

But if children are criticized or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others, lack self confidence and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their own abilities.

Initiative vs Guilt

Age 3-5, kids begin to be more assertive. During this stage the primary feature involves the child regularly interacting with other children at school. Playing is how they learn in this stage, not only learning cognitive skills but interpersonal skills as well. At this stage kids ask a lot of questions.

If a child is supported and is allowed to explore, they learn to show initiative.  If not, they can develop a sense of guilt.

Industry vs Inferiority

5-12-years-old. It is at this stage that the child’s friends will start to have more importance and will become a major source of the child’s self esteem. Kids now feel the need to win approval from others and begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments.

If they’re enforced in taking initiative, they feel confident. If not, they can develop a sense of inferiority.

Identity vs Role Confusion

Oh the wonderful teen years. From 12-18-years-old, at this stage, teens are trying to figure out the big question, “Who am I ?” Kids change clothes styles, listen to different types of music, and want to explore different activities and jobs. This can be a very confusing time since there are so many changes going on at the same time; socially, physically, and emotionally.

Allowing teens to explore what they’re interested in helps them figure out what they want when they get older. Of course, they still need boundaries from parents.

Parents should talk to them as a person, not talk at them. Explain that what they’re going through is normal, and this will help them outgrow this stage in a healthy way.

Successful completion of this stage will give the teen a better sense of who they are as a person. What their own views of life are.

If it’s not completed successfully, the teen will grown confused about who they are as a person and what their own values are. They easily follow or fall for other people’s  opinions and views since they don’t have a strong sense of their own.

Intimacy vs Isolation

18-40-years-old. This is where young adults start to focus on relationships. Dating and finding a life partner is the major focus. Also, figuring out what career you want to be in is another focus.

Successful completion of this stage will allow a person to feel intimate with others. While it may cause a feeling of isolation if it’s not.

Generativity vs Stagnation

40-65-years-old. During middle adult hood, career is the focus. The goal is to be more stable in your relationships and careers. We start to give back to society and share our wisdom with others.

If this stage is not successfully completed, a person might feel stagnant, as if they haven’t accomplished anything in their life.

Ego Integrity vs Despair

65-years-old and up. This is thought to be the final stage where we look back at our lives and reflect. If you feel accomplished and good about your life, you get a sense of integrity, proud of all that you’ve done. But if you look back with regret, it may cause you to feel despair.

These stages  explained here are very general, but hopefully it’ll give you a better understanding of the different stages we go through. Of course a lot of factors go into whether or not the stages are completed successfully or not, such as personality, environment, and cultural influences.

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About the author.

Liza J Alvarado is a professional counselor in private practice. She serves Adolescents, young adults, and Spanish speaking families in Lehigh Valley, PA.

 

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Psychiatrist, Psychologist, Counselor?

What’s the difference between a Psychiatrist, Psychologist, Counselor, and Social Worker? Psychology is the study of the human mind and behavior. It’s used in so many fields such as Advertising, Sales, Education, and most notably, in the human services field. But unless you have some form of training, it can be confusing knowing what each role does.  Here is a quick explanation of the different titles in Psychology when it comes to the human services field.

 

A Psychiatrist is a medical doctor who prescribes  medications for mental health. Only they, or a nurse practitioner, can prescribe medications. They go to medical school and study mental health disorders (diagnosis) and learn which medications are used to treat people. When you see a Psychiatrists for the first time, they’ll give you  an evaluation, which is a bunch of questions about your family history, health history, and symptoms. You then  get a mental health diagnosis and depending on the doctor’s recommendations, they may also give you a script. They should give you a script for blood work to rule out any medical conditions that can affect your emotions and behaviors. For example, if your thyroid levels are too high or too low, you can have symptoms of Depression, mood swings, and Anxiety. Remember, there is no blood test to look for psychological diagnosis.

After that, you typically see them once a month or once every other month, for 15 minutes to see if the medications are decreasing symptoms or if they should adjust the dosage or prescribe something else.

A Psychologist is a doctor because they have a doctorate degree, (PhD or PsyD) but they are not medical doctors so they can not prescribe medications. Psychologist are trained to provide psychotherapy and to administer tests such as IQ tests, personality tests, test for learning disabilities, and other tests.

A lot of Psychologists work in schools, counseling centers, and courts.

Psychotherapist, or Licensed Professional Counselors (LPC), have a masters degree, although some Psychologist are also LPCs because they took the state exam. LPC’s study clinical and counseling psychology and are trained to give Psychiatric evaluations, diagnose, and provide therapy. Total training takes at minimum, 8 years. 4 years of college, 2 years of graduate school, and 2 years post masters training. After the 8 years, they can now take the state license exam. Every state is different, so some require more or less time of training.

If you don’t want medications and just want therapy to help you with a problem your facing, such as feeling depressed, anxious, cutting, Eating Disorders, etc. these are the guys you would want to see because all of their training is in the therapy process.

Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists (LMFT) are the same as LPC, except that their training focuses on Marriage and Families. If you want to see a couples therapist, or want family therapy, these are the guys you want since all of their training is in this area. Although a Psychologist or LPC would also have training in this area because the license board requires it, it’s not specialized training.

Social Workers may provide  counseling, but they are trained in helping people and families function the best way possible in their environment. They’re not too concerned in figuring out why you keep doing what you’re doing and how to stop it. Instead, they’re concerned with your safety and what help do you need right NOW. Social workers can work with Child Services Agencies, at hospitals, prisons, and schools.

Licensed Clinical Social Workers (LCSW) provide psychotherapy. Health insurances will only pay if you’re seeing a licensed clinical social worker, not a non licensed clinical social worker. LCSW’s train in helping people and families to function the best way possible in their environment, plus some courses on the therapy process. LCSW’s license requirements are very similar to LPC’s.

 

I know it can be confusing but it comes down to the training of the clinician. If you only want medication, you’d see a psychiatrist. If you don’t want medications and want to learn skills to know how to deal with things, you’d see a LPC, LCSW or Psychologist. If you want to go to couples therapy, you would want to see a LMFT.  If you need a test to see if you have a learning disability or custody evaluations, you’d see a Psychologist.

 

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About Liza J Alvarado, MS, LPC

Liza J Alvarado is a professional counselor in private practice. She serves Adolescents, young adults, and Spanish speaking families in the Bethlehem, PA area.

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5 Myths about Counseling

Myths about Counseling. psychology

 

What many people think they know about psychotherapy usually comes from movies and TV shows. If you think what you see on TV is what therapy is, think again. You must be an informed consumer when looking to start therapy. There are a lot of myths out there, but what follows are the 5 I hear most often.

  1. Depression and other mental health diagnosis are caused by a chemical imbalance.

This is a debate among us in the field. Truth is that yes there are hormones and neurotransmitters in our body that have to do with regulating mood and energy. For example, Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that boosts our mood. We release Serotonin when we exercise. Anti-depressant drugs are believed to increase Serotonin levels.

The problem is that these neurotransmitters are not measured when giving clients a mental health diagnosis. There is no machine that scans your brain or a blood test that can measure these chemicals. When doctors give scripts for blood work, it is to make sure that there is nothing else wrong physically, such as a Thyroid problem, which will affect your mood.

Diagnoses are given by symptoms. We follow the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) which tells us the criteria for each diagnosis depending on the symptoms that the client is reporting. Therefore, if you are diagnosed with Anxiety or Depression, you have symptoms of Anxiety or symptoms of Depression; it is not something you “have”, not something you “catch” like a cold. The goal is that once you learn how to better cope, the symptoms would decrease. Remember, it is normal to feel anxious, sad, scared, etc. It’s called being human. It is only a problem when it affects your day to day life such as having problems with school, work, relationships, and/or your health.

 

  1. You’re “crazy” or something is wrong with you if you see a therapist.

As mentioned in #1, diagnoses are given by the symptoms reported. When giving a diagnosis, we have to look at the whole picture as well. For example, if you’re going through a bad divorce or someone close to you just died, feeling depressed is a normal reaction to the situation. It doesn’t mean you HAVE Depression. You have SYMPTOMS of Depression. You just had a big loss; of course you’re going to feel sad. Not looking at the whole picture is taking things out of context.

I’ve seen this when working with younger kids. Parents or teachers are complaining that the child can’t focus, doesn’t stay still, and is defiant. Then when we look at the bigger picture we find out that the child’s home life is unstable, or he’s going to school hungry because there’s not a lot of food at home, or that he is a witness to domestic violence. It’s very important to always look at the whole picture.

Furthermore, seeking therapy is a sign of maturity and health. Some of the most successful people in life have reported that they have or are seeing a therapist because they see the value and how it makes them great at what they do.

Finally, there are different levels in therapy. Outpatient therapy, the type of therapy I practice, is one of the lower levels. Clients come either once a week or once every other week. This level is more appropriate for people who are NOT hallucinating, homicidal, or a danger to themselves. Individuals who are a danger to others or themselves, or their symptoms are so bad that they can’t go to school or work, need a higher level of care. This could be in a hospital setting, or a form of outpatient, such as partial program, where they get several hours of therapy per week.

 

   3.  Some techniques, such as CBT, REM, or Biofeedback, are better than others.

There are a lot of techniques that therapists learn in graduate school and post-graduate training. And most of those techniques are backed up by extensive research. Some techniques are still being studied to see how effective they are. However, there is also A LOT of research that has shown that what really matters in therapy are not the techniques used, but the relationship between client and therapist. You can look up some studies by doing a Google Scholar search.

The most important thing is that you find a therapist that you feel comfortable with. See my post on 5 tips when seeking psychotherapy HERE

Think about it, you could have a therapist that uses a technique that is effective, but if you don’t click with that therapist, the technique doesn’t matter.

 

  1. Therapists get paid  just to listen to people vent.

Therapists do need to know what brings you to therapy and know your background information. But that’s a starting point to know how to help you. Typically during sessions, there will be an interactive dialogue and sometimes you practice certain techniques, other times the therapist may suggest homework such as techniques to practice at home. They may help you look at things differently in order to come up with solutions to a problem.

You have to be active in your treatment to see some progress. Sometimes it’s gradual, and sometimes people see changes right away. Everyone’s situation is different.

A therapist can only provide resources, suggest different things to try, but in the end they can’t make you DO anything. You have to put some work into it as well. And this all entails a lot more than just listening to people talk.

  1. I have to talk about my childhood.

You might explore childhood events that had an impact in your life. But it really depends on the reason for seeking therapy. If you have a pattern of being in unhealthy relationships, for example,  it makes sense to explore childhood events, as we learn about relationships from our first teachers, our parents. Also, we can predict future behaviors by looking at past behaviors. It’s important to know if you have a pattern of negative thinking or being that is contributing to problems. Exploring and working on this can help you change those behaviors.

However, if you are seeking therapy because you’re having trouble adjusting to graduating from high school or college, you might just focus on the problem at hand. Many therapist will focus on solutions to the current problem, not childhood issues.

 

I hope that some of these myths were cleared up. Ultimately, therapy is a process and you have to judge it from your own experience. I hope that you find the right therapist for you along your journey in personal development.

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About Liza J Alvarado, MS, LPC

Liza J Alvarado is a professional counselor in private practice. She serves Adolescents, young adults, and Spanish speaking families in the Bethlehem, PA area.

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